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Contact Us


Physical Address:
975 Sixth Street
CNR 103A
Moscow, Idaho

Mailing Address:
875 Perimeter Drive MS 1136
Moscow, ID 83844-1136

Phone: 208-885-4121

Fax: 208-885-9080


Publications and Software

A Selection of Classic Papers From Before 2007:

Byers, J and LP Waits (2006) Good genes and sexual selection in nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103:16343-16345.

Waits, LP and D Paetkau (2005) New non-invasive genetic sampling tools for wildlife biologists: a review of applications and recommendations for accurate data collection. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1419-1433.

Miller, CR, P Joyce, LP Waits (2005) Estimating the size of small populations using genetic mark-recapture. Molecular Ecology 14:1991-2005.

Miller, CR, J Adams, LP Waits (2003) Pedigree based assignment tests for reversing coyote (Canis latrans) introgression into the wild red wolf (Canis rufus) population. Molecular Ecology 12: 3287-3301.

Miller, CR and LP Waits (2003) The History of Effective Population Size and Genetic Diversity in the Yellowstone Grizzly (Ursus arctos): Implications for Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 100:4334-4339.

Miller, C, P Joyce, LP Waits (2002) A maximum likelihood based model for detecting microsatellite genotyping errors. Genetics 160:357-366.

Waits, LP, G Luikart, P Taberlet (2001) Estimating the probability of identity among genotypes: Cautions and guidelines. Molecular Ecology 10:249-256.

Taberlet, P, LP Waits, G Luikart (1999) Non-invasive genetic sampling: look before you leap. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:323-327.

Publications From the Last Five Years:

Skrbinšek, T, M Jelenčič, LP Waits, H Potočnik, I Kos, P Trontelj (in press) Using a reference population yardstick to calibrate and compare genetic diversity reported in different studies: an example from the brown bear. J of Heredity.

Sparkman, A, J.R. Adams, T Steury, L Waits, D Murray (2012, online early) Pack social dynamics and inbreeding avoidance in the cooperatively breeding red wolf. Behavioral Ecology.

Blair C, D. E. Weigel, M. Balazik, A. T.H. Keeley, F. M. Walker, N Balkenhol, E Landguth, S Cushman, M Murphy , LP Waits (2012, online early) A simulation-based evaluation of methods for inferring linear barriers to gene flow. Molecular Ecology Resources.

Goldberg, CS, DC Tank, S Uribe-Convers, WR Bosworth, HE Marx, and LP Waits. 2012. Species designation of the Bruneau Dune tiger beetle (Cicindela waynei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Conservation Genetics 13:373-380.

Skrbinšek, T., M. Jelenčič, LP Waits, I Kos, K Jerina, P Trontelj (2012) Monitoring the effective population size of a brown bear (Ursus arctos) population using new single-sample approaches. Molecular Ecology 21:862-875.

Graves, TA, TN Wasserman, M Ribeiro, EL Landguth, SF Spear, N Balkenhol, CB Higgins, M-J Fortin, SA Cushman, LP Waits (2012) The influence of landscape characteristics and home-range size on the quantification of landscape-genetics relationships. Landscape Ecology 27: 253-266.

Sparkman AM, Waits LP, Murray DL (2012) Evidence for a genetic basis for delayed dispersal in a cooperatively breeding canid. Animal Behavior 83:1091–1098.

Hoisington-Lopez, JL, LP Waits, J Sullivan (2012) Species limits and integrated taxonomy of the Idaho ground squirrel (Urocitellus brunneus): Genetic and ecological differentiation. Journal of Mammalogy 93:589-604.

Dunn, S.J., Waits, L.P. and Byers, J.A. (2012) Genetic versus census estimators of the opportunity for sexual selection in the wild. The American Naturalist 179: 451-462.

Dunn, S.J., Clancey, E., Waits, L.P. and Byers, J.A. (2011) Inbreeding depression in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns. Molecular Ecology 20:4889-98.

Sparkman AM, Waits LP, Murray DL (2011) Social and Demographic Effects of Anthropogenic Mortality: A Test of the Compensatory Mortality Hypothesis in the Red Wolf. PLoS ONE 6: e20868.

Goldberg, CS, K Woodruff, R Toldness, LP Waits (2011) Robust molecular sex identification of beaver (Castor canadensis) from non-destructive samples. Conservation Genetics 3:729–731.

Ausband, DE, J Young, B Fannin, MS Mitchell, JL Stenglein, LP Waits, JA Shivik (2011) Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:105-111.

Goldberg, CS, DS Pilliod, RS Arkle, LP Waits (2011) Molecular detection of cryptic vertebrate species in stream water. Plos One 6:e22746.

Adams, JR, CS Goldberg, WR Bosworth, JL Rachlow, LP Waits (2011) Rapid species identification of pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) from fecal pellet DNA. Molecular Ecology Resources 11:808-812.

Bohling JM and LP Waits (2011) Assessing the prevalence of hybridization between sympatric Canis species in a region surrounding the red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery area in North Carolina. Molecular Ecology 20: 2142-2156.

Stenglein JL, Waits LP, Ausband DE, Zager P, Mack CM (2011) Using noninvasive genetic sampling at grey wolf (Canis lupus) rendezvous sites to determine pack size, family relationships, and relatedness. Journal of Mammalogy 92:784-795.

Russell DM, C. S. Goldberg, L. Sprague, L. P. Waits, D. E. Green, K. L. Schuler, E. B. Rosenblum (2011) Ranavirus outbreaks in amphibian populations of northern Idaho. Herpetological Review 42:223-225.

Falcón-Linero W, C. S. Goldberg, L. P. Waits, W. A. Estes-Zumpf, J. L. Rachlow (2011) First record of multiple paternity in the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis): Evidence from analysis of 16 microsatellite loci. Western North American Naturalist 71:271-275.

Onorato, D.P., R. Desimone, C. White, P. Zager, L. P. Waits (2011) Genetic assessment of paternity and relatedness in a managed population of cougars: biological interpretation and management implications. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(2):378-384.

Sparkman, A. J. Adams, T. Steury, L. Waits, D. Murray (2011) Helper effects on pup lifetime fitness in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B 278:1381-1389.

Sparkman, A. J. Adams, T. Steury, L. Waits, D. Murray (2011) Direct fitness benefits of delayed dispersal in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Behavioral Ecology 22:199-205.

Marx, HE, N O’Leary, Y-W Yuan, P Lu-Irving, DC Tank, ME Mulgura and RG Olmstead. 2010. A molecular phylogeny and classification of Verbenaceae. American Journal of Botany 97:1647-1663.

Russell, D. C. Goldberg, L.P. Waits, E.B. Rosenblum (2010) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection dynamics in the Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) in north Idaho, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 92:223-230.

DeBarba M, LP Waits, EO Garton, P Genovesi, E Randi, R Chirichella, E Cetto (2010) The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology, and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population. Molecular Ecology 19, 3938–3951.

Storfer A, Murphy M, Spear S, Holderegger R, Waits L (2010) Landscape Genetics: Where Are We Now? Molecular Ecology 19:3496-3514.

Sork, V and LP Waits (2010) Contributions of landscape genetics– approaches, insights, and future potential. Molecular Ecology 19:3489-3495.

Goldberg C, Waits L (2010) Comparative landscape genetics of two pond-breeding amphibian species in a highly modified agricultural landscape. Molecular Ecology 19:3650-3633.

Dunn, SJ, KK Barnowe-Meyer, KJ Gebhardt, N Balkenhol, LP Waits, JA Byers (2010) Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers for pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Conservation Genetics Resources 2:81-84.

Segelbacher G, Cushman SA, Epperson BK, Fortin M-J, Francois 0, Hardy OJ, Holderegger R, Taberlet P, Waits LP, Manel S (2010) Applications of Landscape Genetics in Conservation Biology: Concepts and Challenges. Conservation Genetics 11:375-385.

Stenglein JL, De Barba M, Ausband DE, Waits LP (2010) Impacts of sampling location within a faeces on DNA quality in two carnivore species. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:109-114.

Estes-Zumpf W, JL Rachlow, LP Waits, KI Warheit (2010) Dispersal, gene flow, and population genetic structure in the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Journal of Mammalogy 91:208-219.

Goldberg CS, LP Waits (2010) Quantification and reduction of bias from sampling larvae to infer population and landscape genetic structure. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:304-313.

Skribinsek T, M Jelencic, LP Waits, I Kos, P Trontelj (2010) Highly efficient multiplex PCR of noninvasive DNA does not require pre-amplification. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:495-501.

Stenglein JL, Waits LP, Ausband DE, Zager P, Mack C (2010) Efficient, Noninvasive Genetic Sampling for Monitoring Reintroduced Wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:1050-1058.

De Barba, M, LP Waits (2010) Multiplex pre-amplification for noninvasive genetic sampling: is the extra effort worth it? Molecular Ecology Resources 10:659-665.

De Barba, M, LP Waits, P Genovesi, E Randi, R Chirichella, E Cetto (2010) Comparing opportunistic and systematic collection methods for noninvasive genetic monitoring of a small translocated brown bear population. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:172-181.

Viteri MP, LP Waits (2009) Identifying polymorphic microsatellite loci for future use in Andean bear research. Ursus 20:102-108.

Goldberg, CS, TJ Hawley, LP Waits (2009) Local and regional patterns of amphibian chytrid prevalence on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Herpetological Review 40:309-311.

Balkenhol N, LP Waits (2009) Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife. Molecular Ecology 18: 4151–4164.

Balkenhol N, LP Waits, R. Dezzani (2009) Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: An evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data. Ecography 32:818-830.

Balkenhol N, Gugerli F, Cushman SA, Waits LP, Wagner HH, R Holderegger, A. Coulon (2009) Identifying Future Research Needs in Landscape Genetics: Where to From Here? Landscape Ecology 24:455-463.

Robinson, SJ, LP Waits, I Martin (2009) Estimating black bear abundance using DNA-based capture-mark-recapture models. Ursus 20:1-11.

Schwartz, MK, JP Copeland, NJ Anderson, JR Squires, RM Inman, KS McKelvey, KL Pilgrim, LP Waits, SA Cushman (2009) Wolverine gene flow across a narrow climatic niche. Ecology 90:3222-3232.

Knapp, SM, BA Craig, LP Waits (2009) Incorporating genotyping error into non-invasive DNA-based mark-recapture population estimates. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73:598-606.

Goldberg, CS, LP Waits (2009) Using habitat models to determine conservation priorities for pond-breeding amphibians in a privately-owned landscape of northern Idaho. Biological Conservation 142:1096-1104.

McCarthy, T, LP Waits, B Mijiddori (2009) Status of the Gobi bear in Mongolia as determined by non-invasive genetic methods. Ursus 20:30 – 38.

Gebhardt, KJ, D Brightsmith, G Powell, LP. Waits (2009) Maximizing DNA yield from molted feathers: A case study of parrots in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. Journal of Field Ornithology 80:183-192

McCarthy, KP, TK Fuller, M Ming, TM McCarthy, LP Waits, K. Jumabaev (2008) Assessing Estimators of snow leopard abundance. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1826-1833.

Kendall, KC, JB Stetz, DA Roon, LP Waits, JB Boulanger, D. Paetkau (2008) Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(8):1693-1705.

Vali, U, A Einarsson, LP Waits, H Elgren (2008) To what extent do microsatellite markers reflect genome-wide genetic diversity in natural populations? Molecular Ecology 17:3808-3813

Gebhardt, KJ, LP Waits (2008) High error rates for avian molecular sex identification primer sets applied to molted feathers. Journal of Field Ornithology 79:286-292.

Gebhardt, KJ, LP Waits (2008) Cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six Neotropical parrots. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:835 – 839.

Galbreath, GJ, M Hunt, T Clements, LP Waits (2008) An apparent hybrid bear from Cambodia. Ursus 19:85-86.

Boulanger, JB, KC Kendall, JB Stetz, DA Roon, LP Waits, D Paetkau (2008) Use of multiple data sources to improve DNA-based mark-recapture population estimates of grizzly bears. Ecological Applications 18:557-589.

Hanson, T, S Brunsfeld, B Finegan, LP Waits (2008) Pollen Dispersal and Genetic Structure of the tropical tree Dipteryx panamensis in a fragmented Costa Rican landscape. Molecular Ecology 17:2060-2073.

Hanson, T, S Brunsfeld, B Finegan, LP Waits (2008) Characterization of microsatellite markers for the almendro (Dipteryx panamensis), a tetraploid rainforest tree. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:425-427.

Estes-Zumpf, W, J Rachlow, LP Waits (2008) Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers for the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Molecular Ecology Resources 8:360-362.

Hanson, T, Y Sanchez-de Leon, J Johnson-Maynard, S Brunsfeld (2008) Influence of soil and site characteristics on Palouse prairie plant communities. Western North American Naturalist 68:231-240.

Brunsfeld, SJ, TR Miller, BC Carstens (2007) Insights into the biogeography of the Pacific Northwest of North America: Evidence from the phylogeography of Salix melanopsis. Systematic Botany 32:129-139.

Hanson, T, S Brunsfeld, B Finegan, LP Waits (2007) Conventional and genetic measures of seed dispersal for Dipteryx panamensis (Fabaceae) in continuous and fragmented Costa Rican rain forest. Journal of Tropical Biology 23:635-642.

Miller, CR, P Joyce, LP Waits (2007) Ordered vs. unordered samples: response to Bromghin. Molecular Ecology 16:4885

Robinson, SJ, LP Waits, I Martin (2007) Evaluating population structure of black bears on the Kenai Peninsula using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Journal of Mammalogy 88:1288-1299.

Murray, DL and LP Waits (2007) Taxonomic status and conservation strategy of the endangered red wolf: A response to Kyle et al. (2006). Conservation Genetics 8:1483-1485.

Galbreath, G, CP Groves, LP Waits (2007) Genetic resolution of the composition and phylogenetics placement of the Isabelline bear. Ursus 18:129-131.

Murphy, MA, K Kendall, A Robinson, C Perugini, and LP Waits (2007) The impact of time and field conditions on brown bear fecal DNA amplification. Conservation Genetics. 8:1219-1224.

Manel, S, F Berthoud, E Bellemain, M Gaudeul, G Luikart, J Swenson, LP Waits, P Taberlet (2007) A new individual-based spatial approach for identifying genetic discontinuities in natural populations. Molecular Ecology 16:2031-2043.

Hicks, J, J Rachlow, C Willams, OH Rhodes, LP Waits (2007) Reintroduction and genetic structure: Rocky Mountain elk in Yellowstone and the Western States. Journal of Mammalogy 88:129-138.

Waits, LP, VA Buckley-Beason, WE Johnson, D Onorato, T McCarthy (2007) A select panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for individual identification of snow leopards (Panthencia). Molecular Ecology Notes 7:311-314.

Adams, JR, C Lucash, L Schutte, LP Waits (2007) Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping. Molecular Ecology 16:1823-1834.

Storfer, A, M Murphy, JS Evans, CS Goldberg, S Robinson, SF Spear, R Dezzani, E Delmelle, L Vierling, LP Waits (2007) Putting the “landscape” in landscape genetics. Heredity 98:128-142.

Adams, JR and LP Waits (2007) An efficient method for screening faecal DNA genotypes and detecting new individuals and hybrids in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area. Conservation Genetics 8:123-131.:862-875.

Contact Us


Physical Address:
975 Sixth Street
CNR 103A
Moscow, Idaho

Mailing Address:
875 Perimeter Drive MS 1136
Moscow, ID 83844-1136

Phone: 208-885-4121

Fax: 208-885-9080