Your Body is a (Bacterial) Wonderland
Monday, July 6 2009
July 6, 2009
Written by Ken Kingery
MOSCOW, Idaho – Scientists at the University of Idaho soon will be investigating one of the most unexplored – yet most common – ecosystems on the planet; the human body.
The research project – which teams Idaho with the University of Maryland and the University of Alabama – Birmingham – recently was awarded $10.5 million over four years from the National Institutes for Health. The multi-university team is one of several investigating the ecosystems of bacteria and other microorganisms that are vital to human health.
Specifically, Idaho scientists will be investigating what communities of bacteria live in the human vagina, how they interact with each other and the human body, and how they work to maintain women’s health.
“The easiest way to think about this project is in terms of a plant community,” said Larry Forney, co-principal investigator of the project and director of the University of Idaho’s Initiative for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies (IBEST). “In a diverse, healthy community of plants, weedy species can’t invade and become established. But when you disturb their environment, weeds come in, and they are aggressive and grow rapidly.”
Similarly, the human vagina is home to diverse communities of bacteria. When healthy, these robust ecosystems produce chemicals that prevent infectious diseases while contributing to the stability of normal functions in the body.
But when disturbed, the body becomes susceptible to many diseases and health issues including bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and pre-term delivery.
The study will follow 250 women for 10 weeks, who will take daily samples while keeping detailed daily diaries regarding diet, sexual activities, birth control methods and many more factors that could influence the bacterial communities.
The University of Alabama – Birmingham will be the clinical site where the samples are collected. The University of Maryland’s Institute for Genome Studies will analyze the samples to understand what organisms are present and what genes are expressed. The University of Idaho’s role is to analyze the resulting data and to put the pieces of the puzzle together.
“We’re trying to understand the dynamics of the vaginal ecosystem,” said Zaid Abdo, professor of statistics and mathematics at the University of Idaho, and collaborator on the project. “We want to see what changes occur, when and why upsets take place, how we can predict and diagnose them, and ultimately if there is something we can do to prevent them.”
It is estimated that bacteria cells outnumber human cells by a factor of ten to one, yet very little is known about how these microorganisms live, grow and influence human development, physiology, immunity and nutrition. The Human Microbiome Project is a major initiative by the National Institutes for Health to characterize these microorganisms and analyze their role in human health and disease.
For more information about the Human Microbiome Project, visit http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp/
For more information about IBEST, visit http://www.ibest.uidaho.edu/home/home.php
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About the University of Idaho
Founded in 1889, the University of Idaho is the state’s flagship higher-education institution and its principal graduate education and research university, bringing insight and innovation to the state, the nation and the world. University researchers attract nearly $100 million in research grants and contracts each year; the University of Idaho is the only institution in the state to earn the prestigious Carnegie Foundation ranking for high research activity. The university’s student population includes first-generation college students and ethnically diverse scholars. Offering more than 150 degree options in 10 colleges, the university combines the strengths of a large university with the intimacy of small learning communities. For information, visit www.uidaho.edu
Media Contact: Ken Kingery, University Communications, (208) 885-9156, firstname.lastname@example.org
About the University of Idaho
The University of Idaho helps students to succeed and become leaders. Its land-grant mission furthers innovative scholarly and creative research to grow Idaho's economy and serve a statewide community. From its main campus in Moscow, Idaho, to 70 research and academic locations statewide, U-Idaho emphasizes real-world application as part of its student experience. U-Idaho combines the strength of a large university with the intimacy of small learning communities. It is home to the Vandals, and competes in the Western Athletic Conference. For information, visit www.uidaho.edu