2018 Innovation Showcase Winners
Archaeology is often misunderstood or unfamiliar to younger generations, which makes Secrets of Idaho's Past increasingly relevant in today's society. This public history project seeks to provide youths with engrossing and interactive activities to spark their critical thinking skills, personal identity, and create more engaged citizens. Deaccessioned artifacts are those that have met a specific set of guidelines pertaining to the following characteristics: unconnected with human burials, insufficient locational data, and lacking potential for archaeological inquiry. This project reaches K-12 educators, parents, and interested members of the public with new and engaging ways of interpreting the past.
Teaching trunks have long been a valuable outreach tool for sharing information, and Secrets of Idaho's Past serves to enhance this form of outreach by providing a hands-on, historically relevant, and crime-centered approach. The kits will be generated at Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology (AWBLA) from collections deaccessioned by Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forest Service (NPCWNF). Uncovering the history of Idaho's past will prompt a curiosity of one's own identity, family, and community. Understanding diverse perspectives can lead to further discussions and advocacy in a democratic society. This project is made possible with the support of the University of Idaho and the J.C. Smith Memorial Fund.
Loss and fragmentation of native shrub-steppe habitat has led to the decline and extirpation of the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit (CBPR) in Washington state. In 2001, the last remaining 16 CBPR were removed from the wild to begin a captive breeding program. In 2011, the program transitioned to an onsite breeding program with the goal of reestablishing wild populations within central Washington. Since 2011, 1947 rabbits have been released onto Sagebrush Flats Wildlife Area (SBF). Since 2015, ~75% of active burrows are no longer found on SBF, but have transitioned to Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land. The objective of this study was to identify factors that have led to the transition of active burrows from SBF to CRP. We hypothesize that concealment, as well as canopy cover, are greater in CRP vs SBF. Line transects and 1m plot boxes were used to determine canopy cover, plant diversity, and plant coverage.
Surveys were performed to evaluate terrestrial and aerial concealment, and the quality of sagebrush and soil. ANOVA's and mixed effect modeling were used to characterize the relationship between concealment, canopy cover, and burrow location. This data will be used to help determine optimal habitat for future pygmy rabbit release sites. This is important, because in summer 2017, a fire destroyed one of the few plausible release sites, as well as one of the more productive breeding enclosures, with more than 100 rabbits. The managers of the CBPR hope to identify more suitable habitat, aside from SBF, for future releases.
Self-Critical Perfectionism, Daily Affect, and Daily Emotion Regulation Self-critical perfectionism (SCP), or the feeling that one is never good enough, is associated with low levels of positive affect and high levels of negative affect. This may be due in part to poor emotion regulation when facing stress. The emotion regulation strategies of reappraisal (e.g., thinking about stressors in a positive light) and suppression (e.g., inhibiting the expression of negative emotions) are associated with higher positive affect and lower positive affect, respectively, and SCP is positively associated with suppression.
However, the effect of emotion regulation on affect has not been tested in self-critical perfectionists. We hypothesized that emotion regulation moderates the relationship between SCP and affect. Participants (N = 84) completed measures of emotion regulation and affect for seven consecutive days. Multilevel modeling results failed to support our hypothesis, but SCP did have significant effects on daily positive (p = .005) and negative (p = .03) affect, where those higher in SCP reported lower positive affect and higher negative affect. Additionally, daily positive reappraisal, or changing the way one thinks in order to experience more positive emotions, led to significantly greater positive affect (p = .001). These preliminary results replicate prior research showing that SCP increases the risk of poor daily affect and that daily emotion regulation can increase daily positive affect. In the future, a larger sample size may allow us to detect a significant moderating effect of daily emotion regulation on daily affect in self-critical perfectionists.
Graduate Creative and Artistic Activities
Native Voices is an anthology project conceived by Cindy Fuhrman to collect and showcase contemporary indigenous Native poetry and discussions of craft with references to ancestral texts. So far the project has over 40 contributors from over 100 tribes. The anthology, accepted by Tupelo Press will is due to be published December 2019.
The total solar eclipse of 2017 presented a unique opportunity for student engagement at the UI McCall Outdoor Science School. As a graduate student, I worked on a small team to assure that we made the most of this once-in-a-lifetime event. The program we designed was a big reach for our little and constantly overcommitted group of educators, but we jumped in the deep end! We invited 40+ students of all ages from a low-income housing complex in Boise to McCall, ID for two days of solar science and audio-storytelling workshops before the grand finale: a whitewater rafting trip into the path of totality to experience the eclipse surrounded only by nature.
Our dream was that these kids would experience a soul-altering, unfettered moment with a natural phenomenon, re-shaping their relationship to the natural world. Big expectations! But the planning process was full of uncertainty. Combined with the nation-wide eclipse hysteria, we nearly drown ourselves in logistics and last minute freak-outs over all the what-ifs. But the pay-off was worth all the tears we shed. The day of the eclipse was perfect and the students were overcome by the moment. It was the perfect reminder of why I do this work: for the off-chance to facilitate deep, soul-connections between my students and the natural world. From the audio-recordings we collected, I created a podcast to keep the magic of this extraordinary program alive in our hearts. This podcast is the creative project I will present at the showcase.
The novel, set in a small Utah town centers on a single mother and her adolescent son as they navigate a post-divorce world together. After having her home foreclosed, Maddie must find a new place to live. Unfortunately, one house she toured once hosted a group of amateur Satanists rebelling against their Mormon upbringing. Soon after leaving the home, Maddie becomes ill and depressed — and possessed. Her bishop is called in to help and recognizes what is happening. He enlists his former mission companion who helped him face a similar spiritual crisis during the 1970s in Chile. While they are able to relieve Maddie of the demon inside her, her son Brandon soon becomes the next victim.
Graduate Disciplinary Research
Several families have been emotionally tortured on realizing that their loved ones are suffering from tick-borne disease(s). Many of these patients were asymptomatic individuals who had suspected nothing until a certain day came when fear, worry and anxiety crept in after seeing or hearing the results of some medical tests. No one loves to hear that the dreaded blacklegged tick has injected an apicomplexan or a bacterial parasite into their blood stream for a very long period without them knowing of it. Piroplasmosis and Lyme disease are a common subset of these tick-borne diseases that have considerable economic and psychological impacts among people in the United States. According to the trend in parasitology, 40% of people with Lyme disease also suffer from piroplasmosis.
With the current diagnostic methodologies, the propensity for false-positive or false-negative diagnostic results for both Lyme disease and piroplasmosis is high. This probabilistic misdiagnosis may occur not only due to the "maradonic" nature of Borrelia-the etiologic bacterial agent for Lyme disease and Babesia-the causative agent for piroplasmosis, but also their persistently low-concentration in the blood. Employing electro-biophysical phenomena has been spotted as a viable method for early detection of these parasites in the blood and the ligand-search masking of their associated expressed-proteins. Here, the preliminary work on the simultaneous early detection of Lyme disease and piroplasmosis is presented.
Traffic noise is annoying to the residents who live nearby major transportation corridors. Some of the noise abatement techniques such as noise barrier walls are costly ant not effective all the times. Reducing the tire-pavement at the source is viable alternative to cut down the noise level. This study examined the use of impedance tube to measure the acoustic absorption of asphalt mixtures in the laboratory. The effect of various parameters on the acoustic absorption was investigated including aggregate gradation, aggregate type, binder type, percent air voids, and sample thickness. In addition, factors that could affect the acoustical performance of asphalt mixtures after pavement construction was also investigated including air void structure, surface texture, temperature, and surface conditions.
Percent air voids and layer thickness were found to have a significant influence on the acoustic absorption of asphalt mixtures. An analytical model was proposed to estimate the acoustic absorption coefficient of asphalt mixtures during the design stage. A good correlation was found between predicted and measured absorption coefficients in the laboratory. In addition, a double-layer system of asphalt mixtures was found to be effective in providing improved acoustical performance that overcomes the issues associated with the use of open graded friction course as a wearing surface.
Understanding the total heat ﬂow from the Yellowstone caldera is imperative for constraining the magnitude of the hot spot magma body. Methods have been suggested for measuring this heat flux that capture the heat transferred by fluids from the caldera but neglect heat from vapor dominated areas of the park and conductively transported heat. Others have used thermal infrared to capture the radiative heat but this method neglects advective transport from the thermal waters and conductively transported heat. A multi-disciplinary approach must be taken to truly quantify the heat flux from the caldera.
Here, I present a novel approach for calculating the often-missed conductive heat ﬂow. By using dimensional analysis to solve for the Nusselt number, a dimensionless heat transfer parameter describing the ratio of convective to conductive heat flux in a fluid, and applying Robin boundary conditions, I can calculate the conductive heat ﬂow over a deﬁned area. This method provides insight into the signiﬁcance of this heat ﬂow as part of the overall heat budget for the caldera.
Graduate Interdisciplinary Research
The dairy industry in Idaho has grown tenfold since the late 1980s. Along with the growth of the dairy industry is the commodity increase in milk production - the largest agricultural sector in Idaho. Idaho is also the second largest U.S. producer of alfalfa hay with over 4 million tons harvested per year. While alfalfa is a profitable crop and needed to support the growing dairy industry, it is a very water intensive crop. Water in alfalfa country in southern Idaho is already over allocated. In fact, in a good water year, there is not enough water for all sectors. Junior water users in the prior appropriation hierarchy have already (2015) agreed to cut their use by ~13% so senior water rights holders can have their water rights fulfilled.
Climate change is anticipated to increase surface and air temperature in the semi-arid region of southern Idaho. With an increase in temperature comes an increase in evapotranspiration (ET), meaning even more thirsty alfalfa crops. This project looks at junior and senior water rights in southern Idaho and their water needs for the irrigated crop of alfalfa given climate change projections. It combines the disciplines of water law, policy and management with climatological data and spatial – temporal geography.
Due to the characteristics and connectivity of today's Cyber-Physical Control Systems (CPCS) and critical infrastructures, cyber-attacks on these systems are currently difficult to prevent in an efficient and sustainable manner. Prevention and mitigation need accurate identification and evaluation of: system vulnerabilities, likely threats and attacks, and applicable hardening measures. Furthermore, the ability to prioritize hardening measures based on accurate assessments of threat risk and consequence and mitigation availability, applicability, and cost is also needed. To address this challenge we created HESTIA: High-level and Extensible System for Training and Infrastructure risk Assessment.
When fully developed, the HESTIA process and tool-set will enable CPCS engineers to, iteratively: 1) specify a CPCS, 2) select applicable attacks and hardening measures from a library, 3) check specifications for consistency and applicability, and 4) merge attack and hardening specifications into a new CPCS model. In addition, we add support for device specification templates. HESTIA enables the discovery of attack-defend scenarios through simulation and the design of optimal hardening strategies for a given CPCS.
Drawing on experiences working for Cultural Resources at Katmai National Park and Preserve, my graduate research examines the effectiveness of consultation protocol as it stands with federally recognized tribes, Alaska Native village corporations, and Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. As mandated by Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, we must consult with Indian tribes pursuant to fulfilling obligations directed by Executive Order 13175. This research seeks to treat Katmai as a case study for reviewing protocol and processes that present pressing tensions in consultation exchanges.
Cultural Resources is currently involved in multiple projects that have goals of strengthening collaboration with Alaska Native tribes and local communities. In collaboration with communities traditionally associated with park lands, residents identify a critical need to discuss and develop projects for cultural documentation and preservation. Consultation is the starting point and site where goals of fulfilling these responsibilities is concerned. The purpose of this research is to suggest that despite good intentions, there are underlying incongruities in consultation exchanges. To address these topics and processes, three sites I will focus on concerns issues of initiation, settings, and representation. Drawing upon Linda Smith's (1999) decolonizing methodologies, I center issues of redressing asymmetrical power to support spaces that affords a plurality of methods and perspectives for tribes to engage in sovereign practice. Utilizing Indigenous frameworks emphasizes praxis-oriented relationships, responds to concerns in consultation, and directs how agencies can fulfill their roles while honoring spaces that are emancipatory and empowering in nature for tribes.