Featured ARRA Funded Project
Featured ARRA funded ProjectIf you’ve ever wondered how the Avian Flu jumped from birds to humans or how H1N1 accomplished the same feat from pigs, you’re not alone. It’s a question an interdisciplinary team of researchers also is curious about. But instead of merely wondering, they intend to find out.
Thanks to a $911,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, a group that includes a computational biophysicist, an evolutionary biologist, and a mathematician will conduct a study focusing on whether or not higher temperatures give a virus greater stability and ability to switch hosts.
“But, if it turns out that our idea is right, it could have enormous implications,” adds Marty Ytreberg, professor of physics and the computational biophysicist of the group.
The virus being studied is known as bacteriophage φX174. It was the first genome ever sequenced and often is used by scientists who study evolution because it has a small genome and multiplies quickly. This allows mutations and evolution to occur rapidly.
Through previous experiments together, the team observed mutations that allow the virus to survive in higher temperatures might also increase the stability of the capsid – the protein shell that encloses the genetic material of a virus. If true, this increased stability may make the virus more mutable, more likely to mutate and thus have an increased ability to jump hosts.
To test the theory, the virus will be subjected to mutations that are known to enable it to survive at higher temperatures. Then, the team will investigate if this ability results in more stabilizing mutations than the original strain that lives at lower temperatures. The team also will investigate whether or not the stabilizing mutations allow the virus to switch hosts more easily.
For this project, Ytreberg will use computational modeling to analyze if the mutations stabilize the capsid. And Paul Joyce, professor of mathematics and statistics, will use statistical and spatial modeling to explore how these beneficial mutations spread through a structured environment.
“It’s a really fun project because you work with people that are in different areas,” says Wichman. “You get to learn how people in other parts of science think. And since none of us are afraid to ask dumb questions, we just keep making each other explain things until we understand. Having to explain yourself really solidifies your ideas, I think.”