Feed is the greatest expense in raising livestock and often accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cost of production on a cow-calf operation. In 2005, Cattle-Fax reported total annual cow costs in the northwest United States were $379 per head. These costs have increased each of the past several years due largely to rising feed prices.
All animals need adequate nutrients, including energy, protein, minerals, vitamins, and water. Their needs vary depending on species, age, stage of production and environmental conditions.
Pasture and Grazing Management in the Northwest
A comprehensive resource for anyone who manages livestock on pastures in the Northwest. More information
Forages are the foundation for Idaho's ruminant livestock enterprises and provide rotational crops for sustainable production of cereals and row crops. In the future they may be a source for liquid fuels generation. More information
Many varieties of alfalfa and corn are available to U.S. producers. The data from these trials can be combined with industry data to help producers choose the best varieties for their growing conditions and management objectives. More information
Idaho Forage Handbook
Editor, Glenn E. Shewmaker, University of Idaho forage specialist, and 22 other experts from the University of Idaho and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service bring together Idaho-relevant information from their own research studies and other pertinent sources. More information
Pastures & Grazing
Grazing standing forage during both the growing and non-growing seasons is the least expensive livestock feed option—often limited by pasture forage production and management. More information
Idaho Alfalfa and Forage Conference Proceedings
The Idaho Alfalfa and Forage Conference is a cooperative effort between the Idaho Hay & Forage Assocation and the University of Idaho Extension system. More information
Programs and Workshops
The Idaho Beef Team provides valuable programs and workshops for beef producers. Visit our workshop page
Find 15 pages on "Nutritional Needs of Grazing Animals" in the 208-page Pasture and Grazing Management in the Northwest
. New in 2010, the book is available for $18 plus shipping/handling from email@example.com
, or call (208) 885-7982.
View other publications by University of Idaho researchers for sale or free to download in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Publishing Catalog
Also, much of the Cow-Calf Management Guide and Cattle Producer’s Library
is devoted to nutrition and all types of grazing/feeding. See topics and brief summaries of nutrition topics in the guide.