Contact Us

Moscow

Department of
Fish & Wildlife
fish_wildlife@uidaho.edu

College of Natural Resources

phone: (208) 885-6434

875 Perimeter Drive MS 1136
Moscow, ID 83844-1136
Ecology & Conservation Biology course descriptions

Course List

Course Checksheets

Download course checksheets for the current academic year | Conservation Biology | Natural Resource Ecology

For detailed information, please visit the catalog description for this degree and its options.




Course Descriptions

Biol 115 Cells and the Evolution of Life (4 cr)

The cell, heredity and evolutionary processes. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk.

Biol 116 Organisms and Environments (4 cr)

The evolution of diversity, the biology of plants and animals, and their environments. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk.

Biol 213 Principles of Biological Structure and Function (4 cr)

Principles of physiology in plants and animals (homeostasis, hormonal and neural control systems, organismal physiology). Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk. (Spring only) Prereq: Biol 115

Comm 101 Fundamentals of Public Speaking (2 cr)

Skills and techniques of effective speaking.

CSS 383 Natural Resource and Ecosystem Service Economics (3 cr)

The role and application of economic theories and methods in natural resource and ecosystem service decision-making. Economic tools are applied to the management of forests, fisheries, rangeland, recreation, wildlife, and other contemporary issues. (Spring only)

Engl 317 Technical Writing (3 cr)

Principles of clear writing related to technical style; problems such as technical description, proposals, formal reports, and technical correspondence. Prereq: Engl 102 or Equivalent; Junior standing or Permission

For 235 Society and Natural Resources (3 cr)

Same as CSS 235. May be used as general education credit in J-3-d. An exploration of how people use, value, manage, impact, and are affected by natural resources; course emphasizes social and economic realities and political and legal processes in a context of current and historical natural resource issues. Two lectures and one 1-hr small discussion group meeting a week.

For 375 Introduction to Spatial Analysis for Natural Resource Management (3 cr)

Methods and techniques for obtaining quantitative and qualitative geospatial information from aerial and satellite images, maps, and the Global Positioning System for input into geographic information systems. Analysis of geospatial data for mapping, monitoring and planning associated with all aspects of natural resource management. Two lec and one 2-hr lab a wk. Prereq: College Algebra

NR 101 Exploring Natural Resources (1 cr)

Introduction to the interdisciplinary fields and professions in natural resources. (Fall only)

NR 200 (s) Seminar (cr arr)

Stat 251 Statistical Methods (3 cr)

Credit awarded for only one of Stat 251, Stat 301, and Stat 416. Intro to statistical methods including design of statistical studies, basic sampling methods, descriptive statistics, probability and sampling distributions; inference in surveys and experiments, regression, and analysis of variance. Prereq: Math 108, Math 137, Math 143, Math 160, Math 170, or 2 yrs of high school algebra and Permission

Chem 101 Introduction to Chemistry I (4 cr)

Full credit may be earned in only one of the following: Chem 101, or 111. General treatment of the fundamentals of chemistry. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk. Does not satisfy the prereq for Chem 112.

Chem 111 Principles of Chemistry I (4 cr)

Full credit may be earned in only one of the following: Chem 101, or 111. Note that grades in Chem 111 will supersede any grades earned in Chem 101. Intensive treatment of principles and applications of chemistry. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a week. Recommended Preparation: A grade of 'B' or better in a high school chemistry course. Prereq: Chem 050 or min 560 SAT math or min 25 ACT math or min 49 COMPASS College Algebra, or a grade of 'C' or better in Chem 101, Math 143, Math 160, or Math 170; or Permission

Econ 202 Principles of Microeconomics (3 cr)

Econ 201 and Econ 202 may be taken in either order. Microeconomic principles governing production, price relationships, and income distribution. Econ 201 or Econ 202 carry only two cr after Econ 272. May involve some evening exams.

Econ 272 Foundations of Economic Analysis (4 cr)

One-semester introductory course on the principles of economics, covering both micro- and macro- concepts, theory, analysis, and applications. May involve evening exams. Carries no credit after Econ 201 and Econ 202; carries 3 credits after either Econ 201 or Econ 202. Students who have successfully completed this course, have not completed Econ 340, and later decide to major in economics are required, in consultation with the advisor, to take either Econ 201 or Econ 202 for 2 credits.

For 221 Ecology (3 cr)

Fundamental principles of ecology. Major topics covered in the course include the physical environment, how organisms interact with each other and their environment, evolutionary processes, population dynamics, communities, energy flow and ecosystems, human influences on ecosystems, and the integration and scaling of ecological processes through systems ecology. Recommended preparation: introductory botany and zoology Prereq: Biol 102/102L, 115, 116, or PlSc 205; or Permission

REM 221 Ecology (3 cr)

Fundamental principles of ecology. Major topics covered by the course include the physical environment, how organisms interact with each other and their environment, evolutionary processes, population dynamics, communities, energy flow and ecosystems, human influences on ecosystems, and the integration and scaling of ecological processes through systems ecology. Computer-based materials are used extensively for guided independent learning of ecology. An online version of this course is offered as a separate section. Course information: EcologyOnline.net. Recommended Preparation: Introductory botany, zoology and good working knowledge of Windows-based computer systems. Prereq: Biol 102/102L, 115, or 116; or Permission

Math 160 Survey of Calculus (4 cr)

Carries no credit after Math 170. Functions, graphing, derivative, integral, exponential and logarithmic functions, functions of several variables. Primarily for students in business, life sciences or architecture who need only one semester of calculus. Prereq: Sufficient score on SAT, ACT, or COMPASS Math Test, or Math 137 with a C or better, or Math 143 with a C or better. Required test scores may be found online. 

Math 170 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (4 cr)

Carries 2 credits after Math 160. Functions, limits, continuity, differentiation, integration, applications, differentiation and integration of transcendental functions. Primarily for students in engineering, mathematics, science or computer science. Prereq: Math 143 (with a grade of C or better) and Math 144 (concurrent enrollment in Math 144 is allowed although it is recommended that students complete Math 144 before enrolling in Math 170); or demonstrated proficiency through a sufficiently high score on the ACT, SAT, or COMPASS tests.

For 320 Dendrology (4 cr)

Phylogenetic approach to understanding the systematics, morphology, geography, and ecology of the major species of North American woody plants. Includes identification and classification of important tree species of North American and other important woody plants of the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains. Three lectures and two 1.5-hour labs a week; two 1-day field trips. Prereq or Coreq: Biol 116 or PlSc 205

REM 341 Systematic Botany (3 cr)

Phylogenetic approach to understanding plant systematics and evolution with a primary focus on the flora of the Pacific Northwest. Includes identification of important plant families and the use of dichotomous keys for species identification. (Spring only)

For 483 Senior Project Presentation (1 cr)

Same as CSS/Fish/REM/WLF 483. Reporting and presenting the senior project (thesis or internship); taken after or concurrently with 485 or 497.

WLF 485 Ecology and Conservation Biology Senior Project (1-3 cr, max 3)

Same as CSS/Fish/For/REM 485. Scholarly work; learning objectives include development and formal proposal of a specific project and conducting the project or research with the guidance of a faculty mentor.

Fish 497 Senior Thesis (1-3 cr, max 6)

Preparation of thesis, exhibition, video, computer program, multimedia program, or other creative presentation based on research conducted under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Prereq: Cumulative GPA of at least 3.2 in all college courses, completion of at least 90 credits, and permission of a faculty mentor.

For 497 (s) Senior Thesis (2-4 cr, max 4)

Independently plan and conduct a thesis project; write and defend the thesis under supervision of an advisor. Prereq: Senior standing and minimum 3.20 GPA or Permission

NR 497 Senior Thesis (1-3 cr, max 3)

Independently plan and conduct a thesis project; write and defend the thesis under supervision of a supervisor. Prereq: Senior standing and Permission

REM 497 Senior Research and Thesis (cr arr)

A research investigation, selected and designed jointly by the student and professor, during which the student has the opportunity to learn research techniques of experimental design, proposal writing, data collection and analysis, scientific writing, and publication; at completion, the student will produce a publishable journal manuscript and/or a conference presentation. Prereq: Senior standing and Permission

WLF 497 Senior Thesis (1-3 cr, max 6)

Preparation of thesis, exhibition, video, computer program, multimedia program, or other creative presentation based on research conducted under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Prereq: Cumulative GPA of at least 3.2 in all college courses, completion of at least 90 credits, and permission of a faculty mentor.

For 330 Forest Soil and Canopy Processes (4 cr)

Above- and below-ground biophysical processes that determine how forest ecosystems function. Emphasis is on interactions affecting forest productivity including soil nutrient cycles, light energy, water and nutrient acquisition. Process modeling is used to illustrate effects of complex interactions on carbon budgets. Applications include effects of environmental stress and disturbance such as forest management, fire, pests and global climate change. Builds from general ecology (For 221/REM 221) by exploring processes controlling forest production, and establishes a foundation to address forest management questions in For 324 and For 424. Two lec and one 4-hr lab a week, including several field trips. Prereq: Soil 205; and Math 143 or Math 160, and Phys 100/100L or Phys 111/111L, and For 221 or REM 221

REM 429 Landscape Ecology (3 cr)

Ecological relationships and conservation issues for biotic communities across the landscape, including spatial and temporal dynamics and patterns, and importance of landscapes in maintenance of ecosystem diversity and function. One or more field trips; one 2-3 hour lab period per week. Recommended Preparation: Familiarity with spreadsheet programs and problem solving using computers. (Spring only) Prereq: For 221 or REM 221

Soil 205 The Soil Ecosystem (3 cr)

May be used as general education credit in J-3-b. Introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological nature of soils. Prereq: Chem 101 or satisfy Prereq for Chem 111

Soil 206 The Soil Ecosystem Lab (1 cr)

Lab study relevant to Soil 205. Experiments and demonstrations on basic and applied aspects of soil science. One 3-hr lab a wk. Coreq: Soil 205

Phys 100 Fundamentals of Physics (3 cr)

For students in nontechnical fields. Conceptual study of laws of nature and their application, including mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, light, and modern physics. Three lec and one 2-hr lab a wk. (Spring only)

Phys 111 General Physics I (3 cr)

Kinematics, forces and dynamics, conservation laws, thermodynamics, waves. Three lec, one recitation, and one 2-hr lab a wk. Prereq: Math 143

WLF 316 Wildlife Ecology II (4 cr)

Application of principles of ecology to conservation and management of wildlife in natural and altered habitats. Three lec and one lab a wk; three days of field trips. (Spring only) Prereq: WLF 314 and 315 with a grade of 'C' or better; or Permission

Fish 316 Principles of Population Dynamics (2 cr)

Basic principles of population ecology of animals. Taught first half of semester. (Spring only) Prereq: Fish 314 and Fish 315 with a grade of 'C' or better and For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314; or Permission

CSS 310 Social Research Methods in Conservation (4 cr)

Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches to studying social aspects of conservation and the environment; how to choose and apply selective research methods; design, collection, and statistical analysis of primary and secondary data; program evaluation; reporting results; interpreting research literature; lab exercises in research design, data collection, and analysis; and the communication of research issues and findings to lay and professional audiences. Special fee assessed. Three lec and 2 hrs of lab a wk. Recommended Preparation: Basic computer skills. (Fall only) Prereq: Stat 251

For 472 Remote Sensing of the Environment (4 cr)

Same as REM 472. Current airborne and satellite systems, data acquisition on ground and from remote locations, instrumentation, imagery interpretation and digital analysis, applications for natural resource science and management. Two 75-minute kectures and one two-hour lab per week. Recommended Preparation: Phys 100 or Phys 112. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students.

Geog 385 GIS Primer (3 cr)

Intro to basic concepts and applications of geographic information systems (GIS), lab exercises on PC-based GIS packages. Two lec and 2 hrs of lab a wk. Prereq: Basic knowledge of PC-based operating system

REM 411 Ecological Monitoring and Analysis (2 cr)

Field and data analysis course where students collect, analyze, and report ecological data related to scientific research, wildlife habitat, fire, grazing, and land management practices. Class field trips required. Recommended preparation: Ability to use excel. Prereq: Stat 251 or Permission. Prereq or Coreq: REM 410

Stat 431 Statistical Analysis (3 cr)

Concepts and methods of statistical research including multiple regression, contingency tables and chi-square, experimental design, analysis of variance, multiple comparisons, and analysis of covariance. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students. Prereq: Stat 251, Stat 301, or Stat 416

Stat 422 Sample Survey Methods (3 cr)

Simple random, systematic, stratified random, one and two stage cluster sampling; introduction to variable probability sampling and estimation of population size. Two lec and one 1-hr lab a wk. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students. Prereq: Stat 251 or Stat 301

WLF 448 Fish and Wildlife Population Ecology (4 cr)

Dynamics of animal populations resulting from balance between birth, death, and movement processes; quantitative methods for measuring distribution, abundance, survival and population growth; competition, predation, and self-regulation; viability and management of fish and wildlife populations. Three lec and one lab a wk. (Fall only) Prereq: Stat 251; and Fish 316, WLF 316, or course in vertebrate ecology

CSS 385 Conservation Management and Planning I (4 cr)

Intro to theory, processes, and techniques for the management and planning of conservation systems including conservation organizations, natural areas, and their uses; focuses on resource and user management programs and techniques such as programming, budgeting, financing, contracting, and personnel management processes as well as conservation planning processes including operational, strategic, and long-range planning for natural sites and larger landscapes. A required 2-day field trip, collaborative group projects and a Service-Learning project are required. (Fall only) Prereq: Junior or Senior standing

CSS 490 Wilderness and Protected Area Management (3 cr)

Historical and legal aspects of the wilderness and protected area concepts; conceptual and applied approaches, considering both ecological and sociological elements; recent research. (Spring, alt/yrs)

CSS 496 Monitoring Impacts in Protected Areas and Wilderness (3 cr)

Theoretical and applied concepts of identifying, measuring, and monitoring changes in wilderness and protected area ecosystems caused by human influences, including recreation use, management practices, and both on-site and off-site development. Field trips may be reqd. (Spring, alt/yrs)

Fish 418 Fisheries Management (4 cr)

Techniques employed in sampling and application of principles toward managing recreational and commercial aquatic resources. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk; two weekend field trips. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students. (Fall only) Prereq: Fish 314, Biol 481, Stat 251

For 424 Forest Dynamics and Management (4 cr)

Integrated methods and techniques for sustainable management of forest ecosystems including, stand and disturbance dynamics, exercises in forest assessment, thinning, harvesting, silviculture prescriptions, forest modeling and communicating management guidelines. Major integrative final project required. Course includes field labs and lectures; on average 3-hrs of lectures and 2-hrs of lab per week. (Fall only) Prereq: Senior standing and For 274, For 320, For 324 and For 330

For 462 Watershed Science and Management (3 cr)

Influence of land management practices on hydrologic processes, water quality, and riparian habitat w/emphasis on wildland watersheds. One day field trip. (Fall only) Prereq: Math 143; and Phys 100 or Phys 111, or high school equivalent.

REM 456 Integrated Rangeland Management (3 cr)

Management strategies for integrating grazing with other natural resource values such as wildlife, water, timber, recreation, and aesthetics; emphasis on herbivore ecology including ecological impacts of grazing, ways to manage grazing, and nutritional relationships between plants and free-ranging ungulates on rangeland, pastureland, and forest ecosystems. One 4 to 5 day field trip. Recommended Preparation: REM 151. (Spring only) Prereq: Engl 313 or Engl 317

WLF 492 Wildlife Management (4 cr)

Review of social and biological context for current practice of wildlife management. Three lec and one lab a wk; two days of field trips. (Spring only) Prereq: WLF 316 and WLF 448 Prereq or Coreq: WLF 482, Biol 481 or Biol 483

Biol 421 Advanced Evolutionary Biology (3 cr)

Macro and Micro evolutionary patterns and processes examined from molecular, ecological, and paleontological perspectives. (Fall only) Prereq: Biol 314, For 221 or REM 221

Biol 478 Animal Behavior (3 cr)

Evolution, causation, development, and function of behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates. (Spring only) Prereq: Biol 115 and 116

Ent 469 Introduction to Forest Insects (2 cr)

Roles and impacts of insects within forest ecosystems. Current management techniques of arthropod pests (insects and mites) in natural and managed forest systems. Interactions of arthropods with other agents of forest disturbance (fire and fungi). Identification of some common arthropod pests of Rocky Mountain forests. Prereq: For 221 or REM 221

Ent J472/J572 Aquatic Entomology (3 cr)

Identification and biology of insects associated with aquatic and subaquatic environments. Additional projects/assignments required for graduate credit. One lec and two 3-hr labs a wk; two 1-day field trips. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students. (Spring, alt/yrs)

Fish 314 Fish Ecology (3 cr)

Examination of physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect fish populations and communities, with emphasis on environmental stressors. Cooperative: open to WSU degree-seeking students. (Fall only) Prereq: For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314

Fish 315 Fish Ecology Lab (1 cr)

Laboratory and field experience in fish ecology with emphasis on field techniques, laboratory experimentation, and habitat assessment. One weekend field trip and several day trips required. (Fall only) Prereq: For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314. Coreq: Fish 314

Fish 415 Limnology (4 cr)

Physical, chemical, and biological features of lakes and streams. Four 1-day field trips. (Fall only) Prereq: Stat 251 and For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314

Fish 430 Riparian Ecology and Management (3 cr)

Structure, function, and management of riparian ecosystems; interrelationships of terrestrial and aquatic components of riparian areas. 3 field trips. Special fee required. (Spring only) Prereq: For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314

For 426 Global Fire Ecology and Management (3 cr)

Credit may only be earned in For 326 or For 426, but not both. Integrated fire-related ecological effects of fire on vegetation, soils, and air quality; natural and changing role of fire in forests, woodlands, shrublands and rangelands; influence of global change including climate and invasive species; fire as a management tool; application to current issues. One-day field trip. (Fall only) Prereq: For 221 or REM 221

For 468 Forest and Plant Pathology (2 cr)

A survey of plant diseases. Emphasis on forest trees and other woody plants. Organisms that cause diseases. Strategies to minimize negative effects. Symbiotic roles of microbes in plants. Two hours of lecture, and two hours of lab per week, in addition to multiple field trips (as weather allows) to observe diseases and their effects. (Spring only) Prereq: For 320 and For 330

Geog 410 Biogeography (3 cr)

Geographic distributions of plant and animal species, and causes of patterns, including climate, geology, speciation, extinction, and migration. Additional assignments and exam are required for 3 credits. Prereq: Geog 100/Geog 100L or Permission

REM 450 Global Environmental Change (3 cr)

Same as Geog 450. Major global environmental changes addressed using an interdisciplinary approach. Topics may include processes and principles of ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, impacts and mitigation of climatic change, atmospheric chemistry, feedbacks between climate and various earth system processes, and trends in global biodiversity. Prereq: Math 143 or Stat 251

MMBB J425/J525 Microbial Ecology (3 cr)

Same as Soil J425/J525. Biogeochemical activities and relationships of microorganisms in soil, water, plants, and animals. Extra oral and/or written assignments required for grad credit. Recommended Preparation: MMBB 250, Math 137 or 143. (Spring, alt/yrs)

PlSc J410/J510 Invasive Plant Biology (3 cr) 

Biology, ecology, and physiology of weeds with emphasis on crop and weed interactions. Requirements for graduate credit include comprehensive term paper and class presentation on weed-crop interaction. Two lec and one 3-hr lab a wk. PlSc 510 is a cooperative course available to WSU degree-seeking students. (Alt/yrs)

REM 440 Wildland Restoration Ecology (3 cr)

Ecological principles and management practices involved in restoring and rehabilitating wildland ecosystems after disturbance or alteration to return damaged ecosystems to a productive and stable state. (Spring only). Prereq: For 221, or REM 221, or equivalent general ecology course

REM 459 Rangeland Ecology (2 cr)

Application of ecological principles in rangeland management; stressing response and behavior of range ecosystems to various kinds and intensity of disturbance and management practice. Online only. Recommended Preparation: courses in general ecology (e.g., REM 221), technical writing (e.g., Engl 317), and vegetation assessment (e.g., REM 411 or For 274) or Permission. (Fall only)

REM 460 Rangeland Ecology Current Topics and Field Studies (1 cr)

Discussion of topics related to changing knowledge and technology relevant to ecology of grasslands, shrublands and woodlands. Min. five discussion classes; one five-day field trip. Required for REM majors. (Fall only) Coreq: REM 459

WLF 314 Wildlife Ecology I (3 cr)

Ecology and natural history of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. (Fall only) Prereq: For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314

WLF 315 Wildlife Ecology I Laboratory (1 cr)

Techniques associated with wildlife research and local habitats and areas where wildlife species are present. Three hours of lab a week. One weekend field trip required. Two additional animal trapping sessions also required. (Fall only) Prereq or Coreq: WLF 314

WLF 440 Conservation Biology (3 cr)

Patterns of biological diversity; factors producing changes in diversity; values of diversity; management principles applied to small populations, protected areas, landscape linkages, biotic integrity, restoration, legal issues, and funding sources. (Fall only) Prereq: For 221, REM 221, or Biol 314 or Permission

Comm 410 Conflict Management (3 cr)

Principles of effective conflict management in various settings; emphasis on styles of conflict, power, goals, strategies and intervention techniques as well as negotiation in the conflict process. Recommended Preparation: Comm 233.

CSS 387 Environmental Communication Skills (3 cr)

Introduction to communications skills in the context of natural resources, including environmental and cultural interpretation; communication psychology and media applied to non-captive audiences in natural resource situations. Field trip may be required. Special fee assessed. Prereq: CSS 287 or Permission

CSS 481 Conservation Leadership (3 cr)

Generates essential understanding, insight, and skills into leadership of political and organizational systems designed to conserve natural resources. Field trip may be required. (Spring only) Prereq: CSS 235, 287

CSS 486 Public Involvement in Natural Resource Management (3 cr)

Theoretical and applied concepts of public involvement in both public and private sectors of natural resource management; historical and legal mandates, government agency responsibilities, applied methods and techniques, case studies, and practical experience. Three lec and three hrs of lab a wk; field trip may be reqd. (Spring only)

CSS 489 Personalities and Philosophies in Conservation (3 cr)

Lives and thinking of people who have significantly influenced conservation practice including issues of communication, public involvement, environmental education and environmental interpretation. (Spring only)

CSS 492 Ecotourism Principles and Issues (3 cr)

Critical examination of ecotourism emphasizing its ideology and conceptual foundations as well as major environmental and social issues affecting it. Recommended preparation: CSS 287 or equivalent. (Spring only)

CSS 493 International Land Preservation and Conservation Systems (3 cr)

Same as LAS 493. An examination of international approaches to land preservation and conservation; comparative analysis of philosophies, methods of implementation (Parks, Biosphere Reserves, RAMSAR sites, etc.), and associated issues and concerns with these social interventions; ramifications of conservation practices for biophysical and social systems. Field trip may be required. (Spring only)

For 484 Forest Policy and Administration (2 cr)

Evaluation of land and forest problems and policies in the U.S.; analysis of current conditions and policies; historical development of governmental and private agencies concerned with the administration of forest conservation program. Recommended Preparation: FOR 235. Prereq: Junior standing

Geog 420 Land, Resources, and Environment (3 cr)

Social, legal, cultural, political, and economic aspects of land-use control both in the United States and worldwide. Contrasts are made between indigenous and contemporary cultures within a sustainable geography-of-limits and political ecology framework. (Spring only)

Hist J424/J524 American Environmental History (3 cr)

History of changing American attitudes and actions toward the environment over three centuries.

Phil J452/J552 Environmental Philosophy (3 cr)

Phil 552 same as EnvS 552. Philosophical examination of various ethical, metaphysical, and legal issues concerning humans, nature, and the environment; issues covered may include biodiversity and species protection, animal rights, radical ecology, environmental racism, wilderness theory, population control, and property rights. Additional projects/assignments required for graduate credit.

CSS 364 Politics of the Environment (3 cr)

Same as PolS 364. Political factors that influence formation, implementation, and impact of public policies aimed at protecting the environment.

Biol 421 Advanced Evolutionary Biology (3 cr)

Macro and Micro evolutionary patterns and processes examined from molecular, ecological, and paleontological perspectives. (Fall only) Prereq: Biol 314, For 221 or REM 221

Gene 314 General Genetics (3 cr)

Principles of molecular genetics, microbial genetics, cytogenetics, qualitative genetics, quantitative genetics, and population genetics. (Spring only) Prereq: Biol 115 or MMBB 154 or perm

Phil J452/J552 Environmental Philosophy (3 cr)

Phil 552 same as EnvS 552. Philosophical examination of various ethical, metaphysical, and legal issues concerning humans, nature, and the environment; issues covered may include biodiversity and species protection, animal rights, radical ecology, environmental racism, wilderness theory, population control, and property rights. Additional projects/assignments required for graduate credit.

REM 429 Landscape Ecology (3 cr)

Ecological relationships and conservation issues for biotic communities across the landscape, including spatial and temporal dynamics and patterns, and importance of landscapes in maintenance of ecosystem diversity and function. One or more field trips; one 2-3 hour lab period per week. Recommended Preparation: Familiarity with spreadsheet programs and problem solving using computers. (Spring only) Prereq: For 221 or REM 221

Biol 481 Ichthyology (4 cr)

Anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, genetics, and zoogeography of fishes. Three lec and one 3-hr lab a wk. (Spring only) Prereq: Biol 115 and 116

Biol 483 Mammalogy (3 cr)

Evolution, systematics, distribution, and biology of mammals. Two lec and one 3-hr lab a wk; one field trip. (Fall only) Prereq: Biol 115 and 116

Biol 489 Herpetology (4 cr)

Evolution, systematics, physiology, and ecology of reptiles and amphibians. Three lectures and one 3-hr lab a wk; field trip. (Fall only) Prereq: Biol 115 and 116

WLF 482 Ornithology (4 cr)

Evolution, systematics, distribution, identification, and biology of birds, including current conservation efforts. Requires two days of field trips. (Spring only) Prereq: Biol 213